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Paideia 112 Research Unit

MLA Style: In-Text Citations

The MLA format places the information about the author and the page number within a parenthesis after the quoted or paraphrased material: 

EXAMPLE: According to Jared Diamond, “Technology begets more technology” (258).

If you do not mention the author’s name in your introduction to the quote, place the name within the parenthesis: 

EXAMPLE: As one contemporary historian describes it, “technology begets more technology” (Diamond 258).

Then place the full information about Jared Diamond’s book in your Works Cited page:

EXAMPLE: Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1997. Print.

Chicago Style (CMS): In-Text Citations

The CMS format uses the notes and bibliography style, which means whenever you have a quotation or paraphrase, you place a number after it:

    EXAMPLE: According to Jared Diamond, “technology begets more technology.”[1]

    You can place footnotes either at the bottom of the page, separated with a line as illustrated here, OR have a page at the end of your paper called “Notes.” 


    [1]  Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, (New York: Norton,  1997), 258.

    After the "Notes" page, you must also include a bibliography page, and the would appear like this:

    Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1997. 

    Examples adapted from Turabian.

    Formatting the Works Cited (MLA) or Bibliography (CMS)

    The Works Cited (MLA) or Bibliography (CMS) provides complete bibliographic information for the sources you used, thereby allowing your reader to identify and locate those materials. To format the page:

    • Begin the list on a new page at the end of your paper.
    • Use 1" margins.
    • Continue the page numbers of the text (i.e., if your paper ends with page 15, the list should start at page 16) and place in the upper right-hand corner a 1/2" from the top and flush with the right margin.
    • If using MLA, title your page "Works Cited" and center it on the page. If using CMS, title your page "Bibliography" and center it on the page.
    • Double space within and between entries.
    • If an entry is longer than one line, indent the subsequent line 1/2" (hanging indent).
    • Arrange the entries alphabetically.
    • Check with your instructor about whether to turn in an Annotated Bibliography as part of your Works Cited/Bibliography page.

    Further Reading

    The Little Seagull Handbook

    • Understanding Documentation Styles
      p. 108

    Your instructor will inform you if your section is using MLA Style (pp. 93-135) or Chicago Style (CMS) (pp. 170-204).

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