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link iconCitations at a glance:

  • Refer to APA or Chicago citation guides for help with formatting
  • Use Zotero to help keep track of resources and generate citations
  • Credit images appropriately in presentations

Style Manuals and Writing Guides

Zotero Basics

Zotero is a free, open source, easy-to-use citation management program that helps you to collect, manage, cite, and share your research sources. It lives right where you do your work - in your web browser. Designed to be intuitive and unobtrusive, Zotero is a powerful and handy tool for any academic.

Zotero works on all three major operating systems: PC, Mac, and Linux!

IMPORTANT:  Since Zotero captures the information from databases and Web sites, the final version of your notes and/or bibliography may be incorrect (i.e. missing information or in the wrong order).  You still need to know the specific citing style that you are using.

Images Licensed for ReUse

Using Images in Presentations - APA

When setting up a PowerPoint presentation in APA Style, think of each individual slide as a separate page in a paper. And just as the last page of a paper is the reference list, the last slide of a PowerPoint presentation should also provide a reference list. The citation format stays the same; it's just a change from paper to presentation slides.

Using Images

When using images in APA Style, the images should be formatted as figures (see sections 5.20 to 5.25 of the APA manual). Most images won't have legends, but they should all have captions.

  • legend explains symbols used in a figure. (It's placed within the figure.)
  • caption is an explanation of the figure that is placed directly below the figure. It also provides the title of the figure. A caption should be brief but descriptive. After the description, provide additional information that may be needed to explain the image. If you did not create the image yourself, be sure to include a full reference for the creator of the image.

Here are two examples of images with captions. One is for an image with full copyright; the other is for an image with a Creative Commons license.

image with full copyrightimage with Creative Commons license

  • image with full copyright:

Figure 1. Cover of the APA Style manual. Adapted from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, by American Psychological Association, 2009, retrieved from Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association.

  • image with a Creative Commons license (still copyrighted, just with more permissions):

Figure 1. Cat watching World of Warcraft on a laptop. Adapted from "World of Warcraft Obsession," by Stacina, 2004, retrieved from CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.

In-Text Citations of Images

If you refer to the image in the text of your slide, use the same in-text references as you'd use for other tables/figures. In other words, something along the lines of: See Figure 1. (No need to include descriptions such as "above" or "to the left.")

References for Images

All sources used (text and image) should be included in the reference list at the end of the PowerPoint presentation. If there are a large number of images, you could have one reference list for text sources (articles, books, etc.) and a separate reference list for image sources. Double-check with your professor to see if s/he has a preference.

As a reminder, here's the basic APA format for a reference for an image source:

Artist_Last_name, First_initial. Middle_initial. (Year). Title of image/artwork [Description of format]. City, State_abbreviation: Organization or Agency.

And here's an example:

Wyeth, A. [ca. 1951]. Roaring reef [Digital image]. Retrieved from

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