Be sure to give yourself plenty of time to read thoroughly and take notes. Be patient with yourself - it takes practice! Here are some good steps to follow when reading a book or research article:
This will allow you to get a framework before you dive into it. Understanding the purpose of the work will help guide you as you read it.
This allows you to get the gist of the work and get familiar with the topic.
Read the work again - this time in a more focused way - and take notes. Highlight key points and jot down any questions.
What are the key findings? How did they prove this? Does the proof add up to the conclusions? Were there limitations? Are there lingering questions? What are the implications for further research?
Who does the author cite? Are they relevant to your topic? You can look up an article's citations and utilize that research as well.
How does your specific context affect these questions? Are some of these questions more important to you than others? Do some of the answers matter less than the others?